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What is the principle of an electronic igniter?

Update:09 Oct,2021
Summary: 1. The principle of electronic igniter The number of blades of the trigger impeller is equal to th...
1. The principle of electronic igniter The number of blades of the trigger impeller is equal to the number of cylinders, and the upper part is equipped with a fire head, which rotates together with the trigger impeller. The Hall sensor 4 is composed of a permanent magnet 3 with a guide plate (magnetically conductive) and a Hall integrated block 2, which triggers the blade of the impeller 1 to rotate between the Hall integrated block 2 and the permanent magnet 3. The Hall integrated block 2 includes a Hall element and an integrated circuit. When the Hall signal generator is working, the Hall voltage Uh generated by the Hall element is of mV level, and the signal is very weak, so signal processing is required. This task is completed by the integrated circuit, so that the Hall voltage Uh signal generated by the Hall element must be amplified, pulse shaped, and finally output as a neat rectangular pulse (square wave) signal Ug.
Hall signal generator is an active device, it needs to provide power to work. The power supply of the Hall integrated block is provided by the igniter. The collector of the output electrode of the Hall IC is in the form of open-circuit output, and the load resistance of the collector is set in the igniter. The Hall signal generator has three lead wires and is connected to the igniter, one of which is the power input wire (red and black wire), one is the signal output wire (green and white wire), and the other is the ground wire (brown and white wire) The three-wire sockets of the 9J Hall signal generator shell are marked with "+", "0", and "-" symbols. When the distributor is working, the blade rotates with the shaft of the distributor. Whenever the blade enters the air gap between the permanent magnet and the Hall element, the magnetic field in the Hall manifold is bypassed by the blade of the trigger impeller (or called magnetic isolation). At this time, the Hall element does not generate a Hall voltage, the transistor of the output pole of the integrated circuit is in a cut-off state, and the signal generator outputs a high potential. When the blade that triggers the impeller leaves the air gap, the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet forms a loop through the Hall manifold through the guide plate. At this time, the Hall element generates the Hall voltage, and the transistor of the output pole of the integrated circuit is in the conducting state, and the signal generator The output is low. The distributor shaft rotates once to output 4 square waves. The steering of the trigger impeller is clockwise when viewed from top to bottom. When the rear edge of the impeller notch rotates so that only half of the magnetic pole surface is exposed, the voltage at the signal output terminal jumps from a low potential to a high potential instantaneously, which is the moment of ignition. The Hall igniter is connected with the signal generator through a two-wire plug.
When the signal output terminal inputs the signal to the ignition controller, it is processed by its internal circuit to control a high-power triode, and then control the ignition coil to make the ignition coil high-voltage output The terminal outputs high-voltage pulses to the spark plug to ignite. The Hall igniter is essentially an electronic switch, which is controlled by the signal voltage generated by the Hall sensor. The ignition controller also has an automatic power-off function when it stops to protect the ignition coil from being burnt out. Not only that, the ignition controller also has a current limiting control function. When the current value in the ignition coil is detected to be less than 94% of the rated value, the control circuit will increase the current rise rate before the input signal is converted to a low level to ensure that the primary The coil generates enough magnetism. The closing angle control function, which can continuously adjust the closing angle according to the working speed of the engine, the power supply voltage and the performance of the ignition coil, so that the connection time of the primary side circuit remains basically unchanged within the working speed range of the engine, so that The engine has sufficient ignition energy and ignition voltage at high speed to prevent misfire; at low speed, it will not affect its service life due to excessive heating of the ignition coil and ignition electronic components. Compared with the magnetic induction type electronic ignition device, the Hall type electronic ignition device is not affected by the engine speed due to the ignition signal amplitude waveform output by the ignition signal generator, and can output a stable ignition signal even when the engine speed is very low. Therefore, the low-speed performance is good, which is conducive to the start of the engine, and the Hall-type ignition signal generator can output a square wave signal with a high and low time ratio in any engine condition, so the ignition timing is accurate and easy to control. In addition, the Hall-type ignition signal generator does not need to be adjusted, and is not affected by dust and oil, making the performance of the Hall-type electronic ignition device more reliable and longer life. Second, the electronic igniter maintenance method First of all, one of the most commonly used methods is to use a single-function igniter for maintenance. The principle that this equipment can use in the process of using is to use the voltage in the battery as an input signal, and a multimeter is required to judge the quality of the igniter and the quality of its work. When we disassemble the line connector, we need to turn on the ignition switch, and use a 1.5 volt dry battery, and install the positive and negative terminals of the battery in the ignition signal input line of the igniter. Use a multimeter to check the voltage between the ignition ring abdominal muscle and the ground. Of course, we can also use a 12-volt test lamp to link the multimeter, so that the results of the overhaul can also be observed. Then we need to reverse the positive and negative poles on both sides of the dry battery, and measure the voltage between the ground and the negative pole of the fire coil again. If the two measurement results are not the same, it means that the electronic igniter itself is faulty. The generator using Hall signal can also help us to overhaul the electronic igniter. We need to remove the wire on the negative pole of the fire coil, connect a light bulb in series in the line, connect the positive pole of 3 volts to the terminal of the igniter to turn on the ignition switch, and then connect the negative terminal of the dry battery to the body. If the light bulb turns on and off, it means that the quality of the igniter is relatively good. Otherwise, it means that the electronic igniter has been damaged.